Frequently Asked Questions

Adaptation measures


Adaptation Option




Expanded rainwater harvesting

Water storage and conservation techniques

Water re-use; Desalination

Water use and irrigation efficiency increase

Adjustment of planting dates and new crops varieties




Crop relocation

Improve land management e.g. erosion control and soil and conservation/protection through tree planting

Improve land management e.g. erosion control and soil and conservation/protection through tree planting

Promotion of Agroforestry

Water supply and irrigation system


Community-based forest management


Conservation of Forest Protected Areas; Mangrove Planting


Forest/environmental conservation awareness

Adaptation measures addressing CC?

  • It must be an integral component of an effective strategy to address climate change. 
  • Adaptation is something that primarily and much successful can takes place at the local level with adequate financial support. Thus, it is important that local people themselves define the risks related to change of climate and take timely appropriate action

Causes of Climate change?

Climate change may be occur in a specific region or covering the Earth as a whole.

Climate change is caused by increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere through:

  • Natural Variation (solar radiation and deviations in the Earth's orbit). This is natural controlled process!
  • Human/Anthropogenic Activities: e.g.
  1. Use of fossil fuels: oil, coal and gas
  2. Industrial production
  3. Deforestation
  4. Agriculture
  5. Mining (Minerals)

Local Signs and Impacts of Climate Change?

Some example of Local signs of Climate Change

  • Erratic rainfalls
  • Temperature rise
  • Drought 
  • Reduced water flow
  • Drying of rivers, streams, wells
  • Decrease in annual crop yields
  • Strong Winds
  • Increase sea water temperature 
  • Increased forest fires
  • Changes in seasonality
  • Decline of land productivity
  • Loss of Livestock due to extreme drought and diseases 
  • Loss of settlements due to floods, sea level indudation 
  • Intrusion of salt water in the farms and water wells
  • High water table
  • Diseases e.g. in Mangroves
  • Low fisheries procution 
  • Damage to infrustructure
  • Loss of biodiversity

Main sources of GHGs emissions?

  • Residential Commercial Buildings 7.9%
  • Forestry 17.4%
  • Transport 13.1%
  • Agriculture 13.5%
  • Indusrty 19.4%
  • Waste and Waste water 2.8%
  • Energy Supply 25.9%

Opportunities and Challenges for tackling CC issues


  • Working instruments
  1. Policies, Laws, programs and plans related to environment and to natural resources management
  2. Zanzibar CC Strategy
  3. National REDD+ Strategy
  4. Guideline for Mainstreaming CC
  5. Local Adaptation Plans
  6. Climate Change Communication strategy
  7. Checklist for CC screening of development projects
  8. Zanzibar Climate Fund/finance mechanism (in process)
  9. Climate Change Training Manual
  10. Climate Change Action Plan
  • Political and Community Will
  • International Support 


  • Poverty 
  • Increased demand of NR (forest products, fisheries resources, land for agric.
  • Ongoing development initiatives 


Past and Ongoing CC A & M

  • HIMA REDD+ Project
  • Community Forest Project 
  • Nungwi Water Supply Project
  • Mangrove restoration across country 
  • Tree planting year around and in many places
  • Agroforestry practices
  • Organic farming Practices
  • UNDAP Zanzibar
  • ZUSP: Zanzibar Urban Sustainable Planning
  • Researches and Trainings
  • Awareness creating 
  • Beach protection and management

The role of forests in Climate Change mitigation

  • Forest can be a “Source” of GHGs emissions: 

Emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when they are burned or destroyed 

  • Forest act as a Carbon “Sink”:

Removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and storing it as carbon in their biomass as they grow


  1. Conserving existing forests will keep emissions from deforestation out of the atmosphere. 
  2. Sustainably managing forests through reduced impact logging can help avoid emissions from forest degradation. 
  3. Restoring and planting trees will increase the amount of CO2 removal  from the atmosphere and stored in the plant biomass.
  4. The more we mitigate, the less we have to adapt


What is Adaptation CC?

It is the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. 


  • Engage in climate smart agriculture
  • Agro-forestry
  • Engage in other environmentally friendly livelihood activities
  • Adaptation Initiatives/programs (e.g. NAPA)
  • Water harvesting

Types of Adaptation

  1. Anticipatory adaptation –takes place before impacts of climate change are observed. Also referred to as proactive adaptation
  2. Planned adaptation –result of a deliberate policy decision, based on an awareness that conditions have changed and that action is required to return to, maintain, or achieve a desired state
  3. Generally, Adaptation is essential to reduce the human and social costs of climate change and for development and poverty alleviation. 
  4. Adaptation is necessary to address impacts resulting from warming which is unavoidable due to past emissions 


What is Climate Change?

It is any long-term change in the statistics of weather over durations ranging from decades to millions of years.


An umbrella NGO committed to work on climate change & Conservation in their own programmes as well as through advocacy.  It brings together development and environment organizations, those with technical skills and those with a more delivery and advocacy focus. 

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